Requirement in Thai Merchant Marine
by Miss Pinprapa Uswachoke (1984) ;Master degree
thesis. *(The Full Text view in Thai Language only)*.
The maritime transportation is the cheapest and
most popular mean for international transportation of goods. All nations which are
accessible to the sea have attempted to develop their merchant marine. Merchant marine is
a vital factor to economic and social development for every countries. It helps a country
to save foreign exchange which have been paid to foreign freighters for carriage of goods
and provide jobs for her people.
Thailand, as a developing country, has to import
great quantity of raw materials and capital goods, at the same time export agricultural
produce and semi-finished goods to nourish the economic growth of the country.
Unfortunately, her development of merchant marine has been lagging behide the development
in other fields. Her merchant fleet is smallest comparing with other Asean's members'
fleets and her present fleet has only 5% share on the total inbound-outbound cargo of the
The government, fully aware of the importance of
merchant marine development, has included the merchant marine development guidelines in
its FIFTH NATIONAL ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN (1982-1986) to lay down a broad
guideline for future development.
In order to build a firm foundation for future
merchant marine development, there are several factors which need careful consideration.
The important and foremost factor which has to be worked-on is the proper planning and
preparation of manpower. This factor is considered first priority because preparation will
take much mor time than other factors.
This thesis is an analytical study on the present
strength of manpower in merchant marine circle and its future requirement according to the
FIFTH NATIONAL ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN. The thesis include the study on
current shortage problem of qualified manpower in merchant marine and its impact on the
future expansion of Thai merchant marine. The thesis is purposed to be used by the
government planning bodies for making manpower preparation plan on the field of merchant
Information and data in this thesis have been
gathered through interviews with executives of 42 shipping firms. The total shipping firms
is actually numbered 79 but some firms have ceased operation while others belong to the
same group. Therefore the information and data obtained are considered to represent the
majority of shipping firms in Thailand.
The gatherings of information and data were made
both from primary and secondary sources. The primary data was used to estimate the
manpower requirement in Thai merchant marine by using trend analysis, linear regression
analysis and correlation methods while the secondary information and data were used for
the studies on merchant marine history, its importance to the social and economic
development of the country and its present situation.
Parts of the information and data were also used
to test following hypotheses.
1. The merchant marine has inadequate qualified personnel both
sea-going and shore-based.
2. Future demand for manpower in this field is increasing rapidly
due to the expansion of merchant shipping industry.
The study has proven that both hypotheses are
Futher studies were made on the rate of job
occupancy change, sex preference and qualification requirements and found that:-
1. Present production of manpower for merchant marine is on the
beginning stage. The only official educational institute for officer and crew production
is MERCHANT MARINE TRAINING CENTER under supervision of HARBOUR DEPARTMENT, COMMUNICATIONS
MINISTRY which was established since 1975. THE MERCHANT MARINE TRAINING CENTER'S graduates
are limited and unable to meet increasing demand for gualified ship officers.
Factors which limit the capacity of MERCHANT
MARINE TRAINING CENTER are:-
- Limited training merchant vessel and trainers for sea practices.
- Inadequate in-class teachers and supervisors.
- Lack of general teaching and training equipments and facilities.
The shortage of merchant marine educated manpower
has forced shipping companies to turn to navymen and fishermen for training and work for
sea freighters. These types of manpower are capable of sea vessel navigation but their
limited knowledge of merchant vessel navigation and knowledge of laws and regulations of
international harbours can be the obstruction to the development of Thai commercial
For shore-based shipping operation, most of the
personnel have been recruited from vocational school and University graduates who have
limited knowledge on international maritime cargo handling, its codes, law, shipping terms
and marketing natures. Thus, Thai people are normally can not nominate high positions in
Thai shipping firms while foreigners are employed at high cost to command high posts. In
fact local shipping business is currently dominated by foreigners and as a result, country
lose a lump sum of money for such employment.
In order to alleviate the above mentioned problem, the following
measures are suggested:-
College and universities which are capable of
conducting merhant marine educational course should be persuaded to include the course in
its program as choice study and develope into a faculty while seminars, training and
meeting should be organized to arouse public interest on the subject and to provide
advanced technology to the personnel of this business.
The concerned authorities, private section and
education establishments should join hands to establish marine institute to provide
complete merchant marine education at all levels so professional personnel who have
adequate training could be produced to meet demand of capable manpower to run commercial
2. The study on the record of job occupation change found that
during 1976-1980 the number of personnel entering shipping companies both ship owners and
shipping agents are far more higher than the number of personnel who leave shipping
business. This has clearly indicated that demand for manpower in this field is increasing
rapidly. So the national plan for manpower preparation is urgently needed.
3. The study on sex variation and education level of personnel in
shipping companies found that positions for crew require male who has working experiences
while ship officers are preferably the ones who graduate from MERCHANT MARINE TRAINING
CENTER with certificate from HARBOUR DEPARTMENT. Personnel for shore-based operation are
mainly from vocational and universities' graduates to work in administration and
accounting departments. Female are preferable on accounting and administration works while
male are preferable to work on cargo handling operation, ship services and marketing.