Thesis 8

Manpower Requirement in Thai Merchant Marine

by Miss Pinprapa Uswachoke (1984) ;Master degree thesis. *(The Full Text view in Thai Language only)*.


    The maritime transportation is the cheapest and most popular mean for international transportation of goods. All nations which are accessible to the sea have attempted to develop their merchant marine. Merchant marine is a vital factor to economic and social development for every countries. It helps a country to save foreign exchange which have been paid to foreign freighters for carriage of goods and provide jobs for her people.

    Thailand, as a developing country, has to import great quantity of raw materials and capital goods, at the same time export agricultural produce and semi-finished goods to nourish the economic growth of the country. Unfortunately, her development of merchant marine has been lagging behide the development in other fields. Her merchant fleet is smallest comparing with other Asean's members' fleets and her present fleet has only 5% share on the total inbound-outbound cargo of the country.

    The government, fully aware of the importance of merchant marine development, has included the merchant marine development guidelines in its FIFTH NATIONAL ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN (1982-1986) to lay down a broad guideline for future development.

    In order to build a firm foundation for future merchant marine development, there are several factors which need careful consideration. The important and foremost factor which has to be worked-on is the proper planning and preparation of manpower. This factor is considered first priority because preparation will take much mor time than other factors.

    This thesis is an analytical study on the present strength of manpower in merchant marine circle and its future requirement according to the FIFTH NATIONAL ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN. The thesis include the study on current shortage problem of qualified manpower in merchant marine and its impact on the future expansion of Thai merchant marine. The thesis is purposed to be used by the government planning bodies for making manpower preparation plan on the field of merchant marine.

    Information and data in this thesis have been gathered through interviews with executives of 42 shipping firms. The total shipping firms is actually numbered 79 but some firms have ceased operation while others belong to the same group. Therefore the information and data obtained are considered to represent the majority of shipping firms in Thailand.

    The gatherings of information and data were made both from primary and secondary sources. The primary data was used to estimate the manpower requirement in Thai merchant marine by using trend analysis, linear regression analysis and correlation methods while the secondary information and data were used for the studies on merchant marine history, its importance to the social and economic development of the country and its present situation.

    Parts of the information and data were also used to test following hypotheses.

1. The merchant marine has inadequate qualified personnel both sea-going and shore-based.

2. Future demand for manpower in this field is increasing rapidly due to the expansion of merchant shipping industry.

    The study has proven that both hypotheses are true.

    Futher studies were made on the rate of job occupancy change, sex preference and qualification requirements and found that:-

1. Present production of manpower for merchant marine is on the beginning stage. The only official educational institute for officer and crew production is MERCHANT MARINE TRAINING CENTER under supervision of HARBOUR DEPARTMENT, COMMUNICATIONS MINISTRY which was established since 1975. THE MERCHANT MARINE TRAINING CENTER'S graduates are limited and unable to meet increasing demand for gualified ship officers.

    Factors which limit the capacity of MERCHANT MARINE TRAINING CENTER are:-

- Limited training merchant vessel and trainers for sea practices.

- Inadequate in-class teachers and supervisors.

- Lack of general teaching and training equipments and facilities.

    The shortage of merchant marine educated manpower has forced shipping companies to turn to navymen and fishermen for training and work for sea freighters. These types of manpower are capable of sea vessel navigation but their limited knowledge of merchant vessel navigation and knowledge of laws and regulations of international harbours can be the obstruction to the development of Thai commercial shipping firms.

    For shore-based shipping operation, most of the personnel have been recruited from vocational school and University graduates who have limited knowledge on international maritime cargo handling, its codes, law, shipping terms and marketing natures. Thus, Thai people are normally can not nominate high positions in Thai shipping firms while foreigners are employed at high cost to command high posts. In fact local shipping business is currently dominated by foreigners and as a result, country lose a lump sum of money for such employment.

In order to alleviate the above mentioned problem, the following measures are suggested:-

     Short-term measure

    College and universities which are capable of conducting merhant marine educational course should be persuaded to include the course in its program as choice study and develope into a faculty while seminars, training and meeting should be organized to arouse public interest on the subject and to provide advanced technology to the personnel of this business.

      Long-term measure

    The concerned authorities, private section and education establishments should join hands to establish marine institute to provide complete merchant marine education at all levels so professional personnel who have adequate training could be produced to meet demand of capable manpower to run commercial shipping fleet.

2. The study on the record of job occupation change found that during 1976-1980 the number of personnel entering shipping companies both ship owners and shipping agents are far more higher than the number of personnel who leave shipping business. This has clearly indicated that demand for manpower in this field is increasing rapidly. So the national plan for manpower preparation is urgently needed.

3. The study on sex variation and education level of personnel in shipping companies found that positions for crew require male who has working experiences while ship officers are preferably the ones who graduate from MERCHANT MARINE TRAINING CENTER with certificate from HARBOUR DEPARTMENT. Personnel for shore-based operation are mainly from vocational and universities' graduates to work in administration and accounting departments. Female are preferable on accounting and administration works while male are preferable to work on cargo handling operation, ship services and marketing.

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