Thesis 3

A Comparative study on Ocean Transport of Industrial Products between Containerized and Conventional System

by Mr. Chompoo Kanjanatorn (1983) ; Master degree thesis. *(The Full Text view in Thai Language only)*

ABSTRACT

    The objective of this thesis is to study the systems of containerized and conventional transport of industrial goods by sea and to compare the differences, to study and analyze the problems and operation of the two systems of transport. The study is based on the assumption that containerization is better than conventional system and that development of containerization in Thailand does not achieve the stage it should have developed to due to various problems such as the geographical location of the Bangkok Port, inadequacy of port equipment and the possible labour problems arising from the development of containerized transport.

    Comparison between the two systems of transport by sea is made on the following aspects:

  1. Capital investment
  2. Volumes of import and export cargoes involved in the two systems of transport
  3. Diversification in category of argo and sizes of international trade.
  4. Operation of the two systems.
  5. Labour requirement for each system of transport.
  6. Rapidity in transport.
  7. Expenses in connection with the two systems.

    A study revealed that containerization is better, faster and more economical than conventional system. The higher efficiency in containerized system is generally accepted in most countries.

    A major obstacle to the development of containerization in Thailand is the geographical location of the Bangkok Port which is on a river bank in the Gulf of Thailand. Ships have to enter the Gulf for loading and discharging which costs time and fuel expenses; therefore, container ships are discouraged to call at the Bangkok Port. Moreover, the Chao Phya river channel is not deep enough and has sharp bends. It allows entry of container ships of small sizes only.

    Slow operation and inefficiency in the Port is caused by inadequacy in port equipment. The existing equipment is insufficient in coping with the annual increases in volume of cargoes. It is essential for the Port Authority to acquire additional equipment in order to handle cargoes efficiently.

    The further study found that developmet of containerization in Thailand does not create any labour problems as the reduced manpower requirement for loading/discharging as a result of fully developed containeriation can be switched to other part of container operation such as stuffing and stripping.

    Development of containerization in Thailand faces many other problems including lack of continuation of various legs of transport, customs problems, cargo warehouse problems, etc. Development of containerization requires a very high capital investment and cooperation from all concerned both in the government and private sectors. Transport by seas has so much influence on the national economy that all concerned need to cooperate, to have good planning and to carry out the operation of whatever part of the work which is of priority and importance to help develop the country's merchant marine activities to the level comparable with those of our neighbours.

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